SONET/SDH Training Course (TR-STC)

Course Information

This course is designed to provide a detailed knowledge on SONET/SDH for technical managers, consultants, communications professionals, software engineers, system engineers, network professionals, and IT professionals.

Course Synopsis
Target Audience


This course covers:

  • Understand Digital Voice and Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH)
  • Understand Transmission Hierarchies
  • Understand Digital Network Synchronization
  • Explore Benefits and Features of SONET/SDH
  • Compare and Contrast STS-1 SPE and AU-3
  • Understand Automatic Protection Switching (APS)
  • Understand Add/Drop Multiplexers (ADMs)
  • Understand Digital Cross-Connects (DCCs)
  • Explore the evolution of Timing and Synchronization
  • Understand SDH and Tributary Multiplexing

Course Synopsis

Digital Voice and Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH)
• Digital Network Synchronization
• Network Timing and Synchronization Concepts
• PDH Relationships and Network Elements
• Frequency Justification
• Limitations of PDH

SONET/SDH: Protocols and Concepts
• Benefits and Features of SONET/SDH
• Evolution from PDH to SONET/SDH Plesiochronous Networks
• Building-Block Signals
• Unifying SONET and SDH
• Frame Structures
• Overhead Functions
• SONET/SDH Rates and Architectures
• Details of Pointer Processing
• Pointer Adjustment, Positive and Negative Justification
• Pointer Errors

SONET/SDH Path Overhead and Payload Mappings
• Compare and Contrast STS-1 SPE and AU-3
• Compare and Contrast STS-3c SPE and AU-4
• DS-3 Mapping into STS-1 SPE and VC-3
• E-4 Mapping into STS-3c SPE and VC-4 TUG-3 and TU-3
• Virtual Tributary / Tributary Unit Group
• Pointers and Payload Mappings
• Tandem Connections
• ATM Cell Mapping
• Packet over SONET Mapping
• 10G Ethernet over SONET
• Limitations of Octet HDLC in High Bit Error Ratio (BER) Environments
• Simplified Data Link (SDL) Protocol

SONET/SDH Network Elements and Applications
• Terminal Multiplexers (TMs)
• Functional Block Diagram of TMs
• Automatic Protection Switching (APS)
• APS Details:
• Linear APS, 1+1, 1:n, 1:1, Bidirectional, and Unidirectional
• Revertive and Non-Revertive
• Meaning and Operation of K1 and K2 Bytes
• Add/Drop Multiplexers (ADMs)
• Functional Block Diagram of ADMs
• Types of Rings, Ring and Span APS
• UPSR and BLSR, MS-USHR, Virtual Rings, SNCP, MS-SP Ring, and MS-DP Ring
• Limitations of TDM Rings and Methods to Resolve Them
• Digital Cross-Connects (DCCs)
• The Role DCCs in Rings, Meshes, and Virtual Rings
• Next Generation Digital Loop Carrier (NGDLC)
• Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexers (DSLAMs)
• SONET/SDH Interfaces on Switches and Routers

Synchronizing SDH and SONET
• Evolution of Timing and Synchronization
• Virtual Container
• Regenerator Section Overhead
• Multiplex Section Overhead
• Higher-Order Path Overhead (VC-4/VC-3)
• Lower-Order Path Overhead (VC-2/VC-1)
• Anomalies, Defects, Failures, and Alarms
• Error Performance Monitoring
• Pointers
• Payload Pointers
• Positive Pointer Justification
• Negative Pointer Justification
• SONET/SDH Multiplexing
• SDH Tributary Multiplexing
• Tributary Unit Group TU Multiframe
• TU Payload Pointer Automatic Protection Switching
• Multiplex Section Protection, K1/K2 Bytes
• 1+1 Protection 1:N Protection
• SONET/SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer

SONET/SDH Multiplexing
• SONET/SDH Signal Hierarchy
• Network Generic Applications
• Network Generic Applications: Equipment and Uses
• Cross-Connect Types
• Trends in Deployment
• Network Design
• SDH Timing Compensation
• SDH Network Management
• SDH Performance Monitoring
• SDH Synchronization

Target Audience

This course is designed for Technical Managers, Consultants, Communications Professionals, Software Engineers, System Engineers, Network Professionals, and IT Professionals

Hands-On Labs

This course does not require labs.


Certificate: SONET SDH Training – TFS – (TC-STC)

Identifies you as a Technician, Engineer or other professional who understands SONET SDH.


Note: Additional fees may apply. The available locations for this course are visible in the Schedule section.

Description Item Code Price
SONET STC Training – This course is designed to provide detailed knowledge on SONET/SDH for or technical managers, consultants, communications professionals, software engineers, system engineers, network professionals, and IT professionals. TR-STC $1,495.00
Exam: STC – 50 Question Multiple Choice – This exam must be passed in order to be certified in Gigabit Ethernet Fundamentals. TE-STC Included
Certificate: SONET SDH – TFS – Awarded to students who pass the exam and demonstrate an understanding of SONET SDH. TC-STC $150

Schedule & Registration

Jan 2 – Jan 3, 2020 Quakertown, PA $1,649.00
Apr 16 – Apr 17, 2020 Quakertown, PA $1,649.00
Jul 9 – Jul 10, 2020 Quakertown, PA $1,649.00
Oct 15 – Oct 16, 2020 Quakertown, PA $1,649.00

Online Student Information Form

Please fill out the form below to begin the registration process. After you submit the form, a sales associate will reach out to you to complete your registration.

Planning & Reservations

Contact the Training and Development Coordinator for The Fiber School at or call 877.529.9114.

Student Registration Use the Registration Form above or download the editable PDF and email to

>> Registration Form PDF:

Cancellation Policy: may cancel a course that lacks sufficient enrollment a week before it is scheduled to begin. When a course is canceled, we make every effort to notify all registered students promptly. A full refund is processed unless the student elects to transfer to another course or time. You can help avoid cancellation by registering early.

Student Cancellation: No refunds are permitted for student cancellation. Substitutions are permitted.

On-Site Training

With just 5 or more students The Fiber School can send the classroom to you! We offer custom, on-site training for any of our courses. Just give us a call at 877.529.9114 or email us at and let us schedule an on-site course that perfectly suits your needs.